Present Perfect

 When do we use the present perfect?

  1.  To talk about an action that was completed in the past - the exact time of the action is unknown or unimportant - what is important are the results or effects of that action - they are relevant to now!
    We have already had breakfast, so we won't be joining you.
    I have read the instructions, but I don't understand them.
    Stock prices have risen, so I'm not going to invest at this point.

  2. To talk about actions which started in the past and continue to the present.

    I've had this car for less than a year. 
    She hasn't smoked a cigarette since 1998.

     

  3. To talk about an action recenly completed, usually used with "just".

    He has just left.
    Have you heard the news?

     

How do we use the present perfect?

  [+] I, you, we, they   add the helping verb have
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb 
       He, she it  add the helping verb has 
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb 
 We (/ I / you / they) have launched more than 5 brands in the past year.  
 He (/she / it) has had a driver's license for over a decade.

 

[-] I, you, we, they  add the helping verb haven't (have not)
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb 
       He, she it  add the helping verb hasn't (has not)
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb  
 I (/ you / we / they) haven't moved into the new house yet.
 He (/she / it) hasn't recently been here.
 

 

[?] I, you, we, they  the helping verb Have begins the question
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb
       He, she it  the helping verb has begins the questions
       Use the past participle (V3) of the main verb
 Have they (/ I / you / we) fallen asleep yet?
 Has he (/she / it) already finished the back-up?

 

The relevant form is V3

 

 

V1

V2 

V3 

base form
same as
present simple
past simple
(instead of -ed)
past
participle
   
bet   bet    
bet       
buyboughtbought
drinkdrankdrunk
eatateeaten
forgetforgotforgotten
seesawseen
sellsoldsold
thinkthoughtthought

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

   Time Expressions used in the Present Perfect 

 
 
 
 
lately
 recently
 just
 yet
 not yet
 ever
 already
  
 (now)before
(length of time)for years
 since
Also ≈
 
 never 
 always 
 often 
  





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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